辐射防护的一些基础知识
    2019-1-15 17:20:20  文章来源:http://www.jnlzsb.com
    辐射防护的一些基础知识
    Some Basic Knowledge of Radiation Protection
    核辐射是原子核从一种构造或一种能量形态转变爲另一种构造或另一种能量形态进程中所释放出来的微观粒子流。核辐射可以使物质惹起电离或激起,故称爲电离辐射。电离辐射又分间接致电离辐射和直接致电离辐射。间接致电离辐射包括帷⑩、质子等带电粒子。直接致电离辐射包括光子(闵湎吆蚗射线)、中子等不带电粒子。
    Nuclear radiation is a micro-particle flow released from the process of nuclear transformation from one structure or energy form to another. Nuclear radiation can cause matter to ionize or excite, so it is called ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation can be divided into indirect and direct ionizing radiation. Indirect ionizing radiation includes charged particles such as curtain and proton. Direct ionizing radiation includes photons (Minlu ray), neutrons and other non-charged particles.
    常用的辐射量和单位有哪些?新老单位间的换算关系怎样;自然放射性对大众剂量的奉献有多大
    What are the commonly used radiation quantities and units? What is the conversion relationship between the old and the new units? How much is the contribution of natural radioactivity to the mass dose?
    自然辐射次要有三种来源:宇宙射线、海洋辐射源和体内放射性物质。据有关材料统计,自然辐射形成的大众均匀年剂量值如下表所列。
    There are three secondary sources of natural radiation: cosmic radiation, marine radiation and radioactive substances in the body. According to the statistics of relevant materials, the average annual dose of natural radiation is listed in the table below.
    人工辐射源对大众剂量的奉献有多大
    How much is the contribution of artificial radiation sources to mass doses
    人工辐射源包括放射性诊断和放射性医治辐射源、放射性药物、放射性废物、核武器爆炸的 落下灰尘以及核反响堆和减速器发生的照射等。依据有关材料记载,人工辐射源对大众发生 的均匀年剂量值如下表所列。

    Artificial radiation sources include radiation diagnosis and treatment, radioactive drugs, radioactive waste, fallen dust from nuclear weapon explosions, and radiation from nuclear reactor and decelerator. According to the records of relevant materials, the average annual dose of artificial radiation to the public is listed in the table below.

    射线防护器材

    辐射防护是研讨维护人类(系指全人类、其中的局部或集体成员以及他们的后代)免受或少受辐射危害的使用学科,有时亦指用于维护人类免受或尽量少受辐射危害的要求、措施、手腕和办法。辐射包括电离辐射和非电离辐射。在核范畴,辐射防护专指电离辐射防护。
    Radiation protection is a subject that studies and protects human beings from or less from radiation hazards (i.e. all human beings, their local or collective members and their descendants). It also refers to requirements, measures, wrists and methods used to protect human beings from or as little as possible from radiation hazards. Radiation includes ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation. In the nuclear field, radiation protection refers to the protection of ionizing radiation.
    什麼是辐射防护的三准绳
    What are the three criteria of radiation protection
    辐射防护三准绳是指理论的合理性、防护程度的最优化和团体受照的剂量限值。
    The three criteria of radiation protection refer to the rationality of the theory, the optimization of the degree of protection and the dose limit of group exposure.
    什麼叫外照射?外照射防护办法有哪三种
    What is external radiation? What are three ways to protect against external radiation?
    体外辐射源对人体的照射称外照射。外照射的防护办法有受照射工夫的控制、增大与辐射源 间的间隔和采用屏蔽三种办法。
    External radiation is called external radiation. There are three ways to protect external radiation: control by time of exposure, increase the interval between radiation source and radiation source, and shielding.
    什麼叫内照射?控制内照射的根本准绳是什麼
    What is internal irradiation? What is the basic criterion for controlling internal irradiation?
    进入人体内的放射性核素作爲辐射源对人体的照射称内照射。控制内照射的根本准绳是避免或增加放射性物质进入体内,关于放射性核素能够进入体内的途径要予以防备。
    Radionuclide entering human body is called internal irradiation as radiation source. The basic criterion for controlling internal irradiation is to avoid or increase the entry of radioactive substances into the body, and the ways in which radionuclides can enter the body should be guarded against.
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    In summary, all of the above-mentioned Jinan Lianzhong Heating Equipment Factory provides more knowledge of radiation protection equipment. Welcome to our website: http://www.jnlzsb.com. Thank you for your support.
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